Psychology’s 10 Greatest Case Studies – Digested – Research Digest

 

developmental psychology case studies

Aug 27,  · Are you looking for a topic for a psychology paper, experiment, or science fair project? Developmental psychology is a fascinating area and one of the most popular topics in psychology. It can also be a very broad subject that can include anything from prenatal development to health during the final stages of life. A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. Much of Freud's work and theories were developed through the use of individual case studies. Some great examples of case studies in psychology include Anna O, Phineas Gage, and Genie. As Marie's counselor, apply psychosocial developmental theory to the situation presented in Marie's case. (Read attached Case Study document) Based on your own area of specialization and the developmental tasks of a member of this family or the family in general, answer the following questions.


Developmental Psychology (Erikson/Piaget) Case Studies | Researchomatic


By Kristen Fescoe Published January The field of psychology is a very broad field comprised of many smaller specialty areas. Each of these specialty areas has been strengthened over the years by research studies designed to prove or disprove theories and hypotheses that pique the interests of psychologists throughout the world.

While each year thousands and thousands of studies are completed in the many specialty areas of psychology, there are a handful that, over the years, have had a lasting impact in the psychological community as a whole. Some of these were dutifully conducted, keeping within the confines of ethical and practical guidelines. Others pushed the boundaries of the field and created controversies that still linger to this day, developmental psychology case studies. And still others were not designed to be true psychological experiments, but ended up as beacons to the psychological community in proving or disproving theories.

This is a list of the 25 most influential psychological experiments developmental psychology case studies being taught to psychology students of today.

Martin Luther King Jr. The third grade teacher developed an exercise to help her Caucasian students understand the effects of racism and prejudice, developmental psychology case studies. Elliott divided her class into two separate groups: blue-eyed students and brown-eyed students. On the first day, she labeled the blue-eyed group as the superior group and from that point forward they had extra privileges, leaving the brown-eyed children to represent the minority group.

She discouraged the groups from interacting and singled out individual students to stress the negative characteristics of the children in the minority group. The group of blue-eyed students performed better academically and even began bullying their brown-eyed classmates. The brown-eyed group experienced lower self-confidence and worse academic performance.

The next day, she reversed the roles of the two groups and the blue-eyed students became the minority group. At the end of the experiment, the children were so relieved that they were reported to have embraced one another and agreed that people should not be judged based on outward appearances.

This exercise has since been repeated many times with similar outcomes, developmental psychology case studies. For more information click here. Experiment Details: Dr. A group of participants were shown pictures with lines of various lengths and were then asked a simple question: Which line is longest?

The tricky part of this study was that in each group only one person was a true participant. The others were actors with a script. Most of the actors were instructed to give the wrong answer. Strangely, the one true participant almost always agreed with the majority, even though they knew they were giving the wrong answer.

Developmental psychology case studies results of this study are important when we study social interactions among individuals in groups. This debate still lingers and is commonly referred to as the Nature vs. Nurture Debate. Albert Bandura conducted the Bobo Doll Experiment to prove that human behavior is largely based upon social imitation rather than inherited genetic factors.

Developmental psychology case studies watched their assigned video and then were sent to a room with the same doll they had seen in the video with the exception of those in the control group.

What the researcher found was that children exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior towards the doll themselves, while the other groups showed little imitative aggressive behavior. For those children exposed to the aggressive model, the number of derivative physical aggressions shown by the boys was The study also showed that developmental psychology case studies exhibited more aggression when exposed to aggressive male models than boys exposed to aggressive female models.

When exposed to aggressive male models, the number of aggressive instances exhibited by boys averaged compared to While the developmental psychology case studies for the girls show similar findings, the results were less drastic. When exposed to aggressive female models, developmental psychology case studies, the number of aggressive instances exhibited by girls averaged Experiment Details: Loftus and Palmer set out to prove just how deceiving memories can be.

The participants watched slides of a car accident and were asked to describe what had happened as if they were eyewitnesses to the scene.

This research suggests that memory can be easily manipulated by questioning technique, meaning that information gathered after the event can merge with original memory causing incorrect recall or reconstructive memory. The addition of false details to a memory of an event is now referred to as confabulation. This concept has very important implications for the questions used in police interviews of eyewitnesses, developmental psychology case studies.

Experiment Details: The concept of cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, developmental psychology case studies, beliefs or behaviors. This conflict produces an inherent feeling of discomfort leading to a change in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to minimize or eliminate the discomfort and restore balance.

Cognitive dissonance was first investigated by Leon Festinger, after an observational study of a cult that believed that the earth was going to be destroyed by a flood. Out of this study was born an intriguing experiment conducted by Festinger and Carlsmith where participants were asked to perform a series of dull tasks such as turning pegs in a peg board for an hour.

Almost all of the participants agreed to walk into the waiting room and persuade the next participant that the boring experiment would be fun, developmental psychology case studies. They could only overcome that dissonance by coming to believe that the tasks really were interesting and enjoyable, developmental psychology case studies.

Experiment Details: The study conducted by Robert L. Fantz is among the simplest, yet most important in the field of infant development and vision. Inwhen this experiment was conducted, there very few ways to study what was going on in the mind of an infant. Fantz realized that the best way to figure out this puzzle was to simply watch the actions and reactions of infants.

He understood the fundamental factor that if there is something of interest near humans, they generally look at it. To test this concept, Fantz set up a display board with two pictures attached. On one was a bulls-eye and on the other was the sketch of a human face. This board was hung in a chamber where a baby could lie safely underneath and see both images, developmental psychology case studies.

Then, from behind the board, invisible to the baby, he peeked through a hole to watch what the baby looked at.

This study showed that a two-month old baby looked twice as much at the human face as it did at the bulls-eye. Developmental psychology case studies suggests that human babies have some powers of pattern and form selection. This effect is a simple premise that human subjects in an experiment change their behavior simply because they are being studied. The company had commissioned studies to evaluate whether the level of light within a building changed the productivity of the workers.

What Mayo found was that the level of light made no difference in productivity, as the workers increased their output whenever the amount of light was switched from a low level to a high level, or vice versa. The study showed that the output changed developmental psychology case studies because the workers were aware that they were under observation. The conclusion was that the workers felt important because they were pleased to be singled out, and increased productivity as a result.

Being singled out was the factor dictating increased productivity, not the changing lighting levels, or any of the other factors that they experimented upon. The Hawthorne Effect has become one of the hardest inbuilt biases to eliminate or factor into the design of any experiment in psychology and beyond. Experiment Details: The murder developmental psychology case studies of Kitty Genovese was never intended to be a psychological experiment, however it ended up having serious implications for the field.

According to a New York Times article, almost forty neighbors witnessed the event of Kitty Genovese being savagely attacked and murdered in Queens, New York inbut not one neighbor called the police for help. This effect has led to changes in medicine, psychology and many other areas. One famous example is the way CPR is taught to new learners. Experiment Details: InMartin Seligman and his colleagues were conducting research on classical conditioning, the process by which an animal or human associates one thing with another.

During the course of this study something unexpected happened. Each developmental psychology case studies was placed in a large crate that was divided down the middle with a low developmental psychology case studies and the dog could see and jump over the fence easily.

The floor on one side of the fence was electrified, but not on the other side of the fence. Seligman placed each dog on the electrified side and administered a light shock. He expected the dog to jump to the non-shocking side of the fence. In an unexpected turn, the dogs simply laid down.

The hypothesis was that as the dogs learned from the first part of the experiment that there was nothing they could do to avoid the shocks, they gave up in the second part of the experiment.

To prove this hypothesis the experimenters brought in a new set of animals and developmental psychology case studies that dogs with no history in the experiment would jump over the fence. This condition was described as learned helplessness, where a human or animal does not attempt to get out of a negative situation because the past has taught them that they are helpless. Experiment Details: The Little Albert experiment is considered to be among the most unethical psychological experiments of all time.

The hypothesis was that through a series of pairings, they could condition a nine-month-old child to develop an irrational fear. The experiment began by placing a white rat in front of the infant, who initially had no fear of the animal. Watson then produced a loud sound by striking a steel bar with a hammer every time little Albert was presented with the rat. After several pairings the noise and the presentation of the white ratthe boy began to cry and exhibit signs of fear every developmental psychology case studies the rat appeared in the room.

Watson also created similar conditioned reflexes with other common animals and objects rabbits, Santa beard, etc.

This study proved that classical conditioning works on humans. One of the most important implications this finding has is that adult fears are often connected to early childhood experiences. What this means is that the human memory capacity typically includes strings of words or concepts ranging from This information on the limits to the capacity for processing information became one of the most highly cited papers in psychology.

In the article, Miller discussed a concurrence between the limits of one-dimensional absolute judgment and the limits of short-term memory. In a one-dimensional absolute-judgment task, a person is presented with a number of stimuli that vary on one dimension such as 10 different tones varying only in pitch and responds to each stimulus with a corresponding response learned before.

Performance is almost perfect up to five or six different stimuli but declines as the number of different stimuli is increased. Petersburg, Russia, developmental psychology case studies. His findings on conditioning led to a whole new branch of psychological study. Pavlov began with the simple idea that there are some things that a dog does not need to learn. Specific to his study he observed that dogs do not learn to salivate when they see food, developmental psychology case studies.

Developmental psychology case studies outlined that there are unconditioned responses in the animal by presenting a dog with a bowl of food and then measuring its salivary secretions. In the experiment, Pavlov used a bell as his neutral stimulus meaning it does not elicit any innate response.

Whenever he gave food to his dogs, he also rang a bell. After a number of repeats of this procedure, he tried the bell on its own, developmental psychology case studies.

 

Developmental Psychology Case Study

 

developmental psychology case studies

 

Aug 27,  · Are you looking for a topic for a psychology paper, experiment, or science fair project? Developmental psychology is a fascinating area and one of the most popular topics in psychology. It can also be a very broad subject that can include anything from prenatal development to health during the final stages of life. Careers in Developmental Psychology | About the Field. As Marie's counselor, apply psychosocial developmental theory to the situation presented in Marie's case. (Read attached Case Study document) Based on your own area of specialization and the developmental tasks of a member of this family or the family in general, answer the following questions.